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2022-12-24 21:54:00

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1ҳ2GQTϸ񽲲ǹȻ3SSɫ“”4оʹ߼ߵĴ5DPLھ䷨

ƷѧϰƵһ·鿼дСģпҲʧ䡣ڴˣСΪѱ༭“߼оĽĹԷ”ϣǿõ!

һʽѧҪ——߼

ʽѧ߼ԽоIJ߼ڹĹȻԵѧȻԵʽۣĿǴȻԵ壬ʵֲȴȹȻԵľ䷨(־䷨ǹ֮öӦľ䷨ͬڴͳѧľ䷨)ѧת﷨ȽϣʽѧоڲֹʽѧҲ漰䷨䷨о

ʽѧҪУ̫﷨ۡۡ龳ѧ߼﷨ַ£

߼ѧ̫60-70̫﷨(Montague Grammar)ȻԿͬ߼ԱͬķϵͳȻʽѧо̫﷨PTQӢﲿϵͳɹȻԵʽںᄈ̬Ⱦ“ѧҡ߼ѧҺͼѧһֱڴ¹Ȼʽо̫ӢﲿϵͳʽоļҪһ……·̫˴Ӿ䷨ȻԵǿķչһʽĹߣΪȻԵѧṩ˱Ҫļ”[1]301ʽѧǰȻԿִ߼ʽĶΪȻ߼ûʵʵ𣬿ͨȻʽϵͳķʽ⡣IJֶǽ䷨ĶӦԭ򣬹ԭģ͡Щ˼ͼʽѧĻʯ(Montague1974)̫CresswellParteeȷʵʩģ˵̫﷨ʽѧоĿˡ

̫֮﷨ǿҪǣ(1)ȻԺ߼㹹췽ͨģӴṹĽǶȽоѧ߼ķȻԵоȻԵʽѧѧķ֧ѧ;(2)䷨Ӧԭ򣬼ÿ䷨Ӧһ򡣾䷨ȻɴγɴγĹ(߼ϵͳʽʽγɹ)֮Ӧǰվ䷨ʽγɹ̶ƶϹ򡣾䷨СķŴķŴҲɲֱʽϳɸϱʽ塣ϱʽ䲿ĺԾ䷨ĶӦԭ;(3)ȻԾӵģѧνֵȻԴԷڶԾֵ˼߼ǿӰȻоĽ

磬̫﷨еľ䷨αʶβǶʶF(αβ)=αβ䡣ӦΪαǡαβǡβαβǡαβ=G(αβ)=α(β)ʽαβ塬αβȻ䲿塬α͡βĺֵΪα(β)=1ҽβ∈αʶα塬αͶʶβ塬βֵá

˼У̫﷨ǿȻԺ߼ԵĹ֮ͨǷԲͬ㹻Ĺע?رDZȽϵͳIJԡϵͳʼǵ׷Ƶģγɱʽѭԭ򡣶ֵ߼ϵͳתע߼Чʽ֤ݣȻϵͳȴھ䷨γɻƷϸΣ߼ϵͳпɿԺȫԵԪ߼ۣȻϵͳƵ?ǷԴ˿ɴӾ䷨ӦĽǶƿɿԺȫ?򣬺ϵͳͬӢϵͳо䷨̬;䷨ɵIJ⣬ɫ?ʵ?

GQT(Generalized Quantifier Theory)оȻԵʽ弰干ԡ䱻2080ʽۣ˼Դȴ׷ݵ20ͳִ߼ĴʼFregeʵĻ˼;50—60MostowskiLindstrmĹ˶Թʵ;2070-80MontagueBarwise˰ʵĸƹ㵽ȻԵʹ۳ΪʽѧҪ;ԺKeenan͵˼עȻʽоͬ͵ʶӦȻԵĸʽΪ1ʶӦȻԵʶ“every man”“somedog”ȼ߼ϵͳ“”“”11111͵ʷֱӦȻ޶“all”“the”ԼȻ“five more…than…”֮ʽ߼ϵͳûӦĶӦɼGQTչȻԵ[2]

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